Archive for September, 2008

The Monuments of Ancient Athens

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Athens

The beginning of the Athens government was a monarchy that developed in an aristocracy, or rule by a land holding elite.  Merchants and soliders did not like the aristocracy.  They thought they deserved more rights.  Foreign artisans, who made crafts for Athens to trade, didn’t like that they couldn’t be citizens.  Farmers had to sell their land to nobles, and also had to sell themsevles into slavery to pay for debt.  Athens began to slowly move into democracy.  Solon started this reform when he became the chief official.  He outlawed slavery for debt, and freed some of the farmers who became slaves for debt.  He gave wealthy citizens high office positons, and granted few foreigners citizenships.  He also encouraged the export of wine and olive oil, which increased the demand for merchants and farmers.  Although he created some freedom for the people it wasn’t enough.

Tyrants started to dominate.  Pisistratus weakened aristocracy.  He gave farmers loans and land.  He also gave the poor jobs in building projects.  Then came Cleisthenes, he setup the Council of 500, which was made of regular citizens.  This was the first legislature.  The Council of 500 only consisted of males over the age of thirty.  Democracy was still limited; many Athenians were still enslaved.  The slaves gave officials time to work on the government, and not to worry about their homes.  Women had no part in public life.  They were in a secluded existence, and managed the household.  They spun, wove, cared for the children, and made food at home.  The boys went to school if the family could afford it.  They studied music, poems, math, reading, public speaking, and had military training.  They kept their bodies healthy by participating in athletic contests.  Athens more or less encourage knowledge instead or strength, unlike Sparta.

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Sparta

     Spartians were Dorlans that conquered the Loconia. After they invaded them and took control the Spartians they tunred them into slaves. They made the slaves work on the land. Sparta was isolated from all the other Greek. They also looked down on trade and wealth, they didnt want any of their citizens to travel. They had little use for ideas and art. Most other peopl looked up to their military but they didnt like the way the live. They said “Spartian are willing to die for thier city because they have no reason to live.”
     In thier government they had two kings and a council of elders who advised the monarchs. The citizens were native born male of thirty years old. They elected five ephors, officials who held the real power and ran day-to-day affairs.
     The women in thier country were expected to have a healthy son for the army. In order to have strong son the strengthened thier own bodies, no other Greek women did it. If thier son was weak it was left to be killed. They also had to obey thier fathers and husband. Women had the right to inhert property since the men were usually in the military. They were alos in charge of running thier family.
     Kids were sent to the army when they were seven years old. They had to get prepared for the army ahead of time. If they were sick when they were born they were left to die. They had to move to barracks to live in when they were in the military. They had a coarse diet, hard exercises, and rigid disipline.  At the age of 20 a man can get married but they still had to live in the barracks another 10 years and eat there for another 40 years.

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Jasmine’s View on Religon in the Ancient World

     Ancient Egyptians religon was important to the people in thier country. They believed certian things that some people may not believe today. The ancient Egyptians believes in afterlife, much like life on the Earth. They inherited thier religous beliefs and practices from earlier ancestors. It came from inscriptions on momuments and walls, which made them believe they ruled this world and the afterlife. Egyptians also learned to keep records of ceremonies, taxes, and gifts just as we do. In ancient Egypt they made many paintings, scultures, prayers, proverbs, and poems, They also has a vast knowledge in fields of medicine, astronomy, and math.

     Mesopotamia important of thier religons was that thier society was polythestic. They also believed in the afterlife just as the ancient Egyptians did. They has a differnet view of it though they saw the underworld as a grim place. they also celebrated holidas just as we do today. They do some of their things in order to win the favors of the gods so they dont have to go to the underworld.

     The Chinese religious beliefs were that they prayed to many gods and nature spirits. They believed that the universe reflected of two sides, Yin and Yang. Yin was like the Earth, darkness, and females. Yang stood for heaven, light, and male forces. They depended on Yin and Yang for thier universe and to determine what was the good side and the bad side of the universe.

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Engineering and Empire: Anicent Egypt Video

The first Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt was Menes. He united upper and lower Egypt by using the Nile River as transportation. He also protected the capital of Egypt, Memphis, from the Nile. He built a 49 foot wall around the capital to protect the city from the extreme Nile floods. Menes was killed by a hippopotamus after 62 years of reigning. The next dynasty was Djoser, he became very popular for his architecture. Djoser made the first pyramid, that lasted to present day. It has lasted because he made it out of stone bricks instead of mud bricks. Inhotem was his royal architecturer, who designed his tomb.

The tomb of Djoser

The tomb of Djoser

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Michelle’s view on religion in the Ancient World

The leading god of ancient Egypt was Amon-Re, the sun god. The Pharaoh was also a god as well as the king. He communicated with the gods, so if something went wrong it was his fault. The ceremonies for Amon-Re could only be preformed by the Pharaohs. Osiris controlled the Nile and it annual flooding. He also controlled weather or not they got into the underworld. The civilians did good tasks in order to get into the afterlife or underworld. They also built huge tombs for Pharaohs when they died, which advanced architecture. The ancient Egyptians did this so the Pharaohs could get into the afterlife safely.

The Sumerians of Mesopotamia also built monuments for the gods. They built huge temples for the gods that reached to the heavens. The ruler of Sumeria was seen as the chief servant to the gods, and preformed rituals to please them. If the ruler did not please them; he was thrown out. The Persians of Mesopotamia were united by religion. They united under the monotheistic religion that worshiped Zoroaster.

In the Shang dynasty of China, they believed in the god, Shang Di, and only the kings ancestors could hear the gods. Kings would pray to their ancestors to save the community. The king also had to make sacrifices to heaven, while trying to rule China. If there was a bad farming season, he would be blamed. Then came the Zhou people, they had the mandate of heaven, or divine right to rule. They made this so the people of China would think they were divine and forget about the Shangs.

Relic of pharaoh.(Gold shows they thought he was a god)

Relic of pharaoh.(Gold shows they thought he was a god)

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All about the Mums

In ancient Egypt Osiris and Isis promised enternal life after death. Egyptians believed that the soul had to pass a test in order to win enternel life. Those who were sinners would be fed to the crocodile-shape eater of the dea. The worthy souls would enter the Happy Field of Food and live there forever in bliss. So in order to live an enternal life they had to preseve the bodies by mummification, in order for its spirit to come back in the after life. They extracted the brain through the nostrils and removed most internal organs. They then filled the bode with spiced and then wrapped them. This was the way to have an enternal life in acient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian Mummification

Ancient Egyptian Mummification

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